H is for "h-bar"...

"Superradiance" is an effect which can convert disordered energy of various kinds into coherent electromagnetic energy. This was apparently first described by R.H. Dicke in 1954, in an article in Physical Review. (Volume 93, 1, page 99, January 1954)
"By considering a radiating gas as a single quantum-mechanical system, energy levels corresponding to certain correlations between individual molecules are described. Spontaneous emission of radiation in a transition between two such levels leads to the emission of coherent radiation... The effect of a radiation pulse in exciting 'super-radiant' states is discussed. The angular correlation between successive photons spontaneously emitted by a gas initially in thermal equilibrium is calculated."

Superradiance in microtubules

Hameroff: "Jibu et al (1994) have proposed that ordering of water molecules and the quantized electromagnetic field confined inside the hollow microtubule core manifest a specific collective dynamics called super-radiance. Accordingly, each microtubule can transform incoherent, disordered energy (molecular, thermal, or electromagnetic) into coherent photons within its hollow core..."

First a disordered ground state of water (a) in the core of the microtubule is pumped (a la Frohlich) by disordered energy into (b) an ordered state: the "lowest rotational energy state" - the system passes into a collective dipole mode. This collective mode then (c) loses its energy collectively, creating coherent photons within the microtubule...

Why is the coherence not lost immediately?

A further effect called self-induced transparency allows the coherent photons to propogate...


Jibu M, Hagan S, Pribram K, Hameroff SR, Yasue K: Quantum optical coherence in cytoskeletal microtubules: implications for brain function. BioSystems, 32:195-209, 1994.

Hameroff, SR: Cytoplasmic Gel States and Ordered Water: Possible Roles in Biological Quantum Coherence. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Advanced Water Sciences Symposium, Dallas, TX, 1996 (forthcoming). - on the web

Self-induced transparency
Frohlich modes

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